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elka ek 44 manualThe rackmount version is ER-44 and a module version EM-44. Rear panel connectors: - Stereo out - headphones out - Midi interface (IN OUT THRU) - ROM and RAM cartridge slot - volume input pedal - sustain input pedal - portamento input pedal - program UP input pedal The YM2203 has been mainly implemented on arcades games from era.Also other features: Let us know in the comment field just below. It is a synthesiser with very mediocre sound and a cumbersome user interface. There IS a data slider and the parameters are silk-screened onto the synth, there's even an on-line help feature, but none of these help you to enjoy programming the synth - if nothing else, the sounds you're getting out of it are rarely stimulating. Its design is flawed in several more areas, however: the above-average keyboard, for instance, does not send velocity values over 100, revealing the close relation with the DX-series by Yamaha (the EK-44 and the EM-44 expander were manufactured under licence from Yamaha). Furthermore, the build quality is sub-standard, except for the keyboard, which features old-school Italian mechanics with smooth, light travel and positive spring-back action. The ROM and RAM cards have a nasty habit of re-setting the synth if inserted when the synth is turned on, though the manual does advise one against doing so. There is very little info on the web about the EK-44 and absolutely no soundbites.There are no links for this model. Try the Elka links page, or submit one here. Reproduction in whole or in part in any form or medium without express written permission from Sonic State is prohibited. Re: elka ek44 service manual or schematics? If you click through and buy from our affiliate partners, we earn a small commission. Site functionality is therefore limited. Please enable Javascript for full functionality. Paul Wiffen thinks they're onto a winner, whichever way you look. We test them both. Elka. What does the name mean to you. Home keyboards, probably.http://www.cruxworld.com/admin/uploads/dell-dimension-xps-d333-manual.xml

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Pretty good home keyboards, as it turns out, and in amongst the organs, personal keyboards and accompaniment units, a fair amount of modern pro musician's gear too - from the Rhapsody string synths of the seventies, to the Synthex polysynth of a couple of years back. In fact, the history books tell us that a number of big-name 'pro' acts have used Elka equipment to propel them to the top and keep them there. Among them, Tangerine Dream with the Rhapsody, Jean-Michel Jarre with the Elka 77 organ, Geoff Downes and Keith Emerson with the Synthex, and Mike MacNeil of Simple Minds with Elka's new MIDI accordion controller. And now, in the wake of such innovations as MIDI, digital synthesis and dynamic keyboards, the Italian company have introduced a completely new range of 'professional' hi-tech equipment. To begin with, there are two keyboards: the EK22, based on traditional analogue techniques (though under digital control), and the EK44, along more purist digital lines. There are also modular expander versions of each. These new instruments follow (at quite some distance, time-wise) in the footsteps of the Synthex. This was Elka's first attempt at a polyphonic synthesiser, and in this reviewer's opinion, one of the finest of the analogue breed ever designed. The Synthex was the first polyphonic to use digitally-controlled oscillators with analogue waveforms, sync, ring mod and cross pulse width modulation, plus an in-built digital sequencer. Even when MIDI threatened to leave it behind, Elka refused to abandon the Synthex and (unlike many other manufacturers of the time, who used MIDI to sell newer machines) came up with a MIDI update which supported all 16 MIDI channels and the sequencer. The two new keyboards have several things in common with each other, despite the different ways they go about shaping sound.http://www.futureplannerz.com/admin/fckfiles/dell-dimension-service-manual.xml They both boast velocity- and pressure-sensitivity from a five-octave weighted keyboard, and they use the same 32-character display angled to prevent stage-light glare. Both hold 96 sounds internally, split between 64 factory presets and 32 user locations. These can be augmented with ROM (factory sounds) or RAM (user storage) cartridges, each with 64 sounds. For live work, they both have 16 Performance Registrations which hold the assignments of various sound programs to associated keyboard modes and split points. And to cap it all, both are built into the same casing, and have front-panel layouts that are very similar. But don't let any of this kid you for a moment. Internally, these machines are as different as chalk and cheese. You might say they exemplify the two most popular schools of synthesis at opposite ends of the spectrum; one completely digital, the other an amalgam of traditional analogue techniques. Of the two, the EK44 has the more immediately impressive paper spec. It's an 18-voice instrument with eight oscillators per voice, making a mammoth total of 144 oscillators. The keyboard assignments available allow these to be used in different ways. In Dual mode, you can play nine notes with two sound programs on each note, while in Split Mode you can have nine notes with a different sound on each side of the split point. But most impressive, Multi Split mode lets you spread nine zones across the keyboard (ie.This means you can play all the available notes at once (continuously changing the zones you're playing in), and they will be assigned a timbre depending on where on the keyboard they're located. Let's go back to the beginning and look at how the EK44 goes about its fundamental business - synthesising sound. Looking through the parameter list on the front panel, I had a definite sense of deja vu.http://www.raumboerse-luzern.ch/mieten/boss-fender-reverb-manual Terms like Envelope Scaling, Feedback and Pitch Envelope Level will certainly ring bells with most keyboard players, unless they've been on an expedition up the Amazon for the last three years. It all sounds a little like FM synthesis to me, but the configuration of the eight oscillators in the process is shrouded in mystery. Exactly what lies behind the parameter named Oscillator Combination is not explained on the front panel (though the envelope and level scalings are shown diagrammatically), and there was no manual available at the time of the review. But call up one of the presets and step through the possible Oscillator Combinations (which are referred to by number only), and it does sound very similar to what happens when you step through the algorithms on a DX. The first 12 Edit parameters are grouped together as Oscillator Controls, and when you call them up, you discover that the settings for all eight oscillators are shown simultaneously. The oscillator whose parameter value you're altering is shown by a flashing cursor. In Edit mode, the first eight Performance Registration buttons allow you to select which oscillator you want to work on, while the second eight allow you to toggle each oscillator on and off. This system works fine: you can keep your eye on what is going on with all eight oscillators simultaneously. Each oscillator has a six-parameter envelope covering Attack, Decay, Sustain (Level and Rate), Release and Scaling values. To avoid confusion here, both envelope shape and scaling rates are represented diagrammatically on the EK44's panel. The two sustain parameters, Level and Rate, are worth noting as they allow you to make sustain either a constant level (as in the standard ADSR), or a second decay (by entering a Rate greater than zero) suitable for percussive envelopes like pianos, guitars and so on.https://www.flexcable.com/images/92-nissan-240sx-manual-transmission.pdf Including the mysterious Oscillator Combination already mentioned, these range from the overall pitch envelope and the LFO (Vibrato) settings to the programmable Chorus. For me, the last item is where the EK44 scores over any other digital synth. There isn't a single electronic instrument which doesn't benefit from being put through a chorus unit, and now that the likes of Sequential and E-mu have started putting these devices on upmarket keyboards, built-in chorus sections are shaking themselves free of the stigma that associated them with cheap 'cure rather than prevention' instruments. What baffles me is that, with all the criticism levelled at digital synths for their clinical lack of warmth, nobody has thought of putting a chorus unit on a digital machine before. But now Elka have taken this step, and I have to say that when you add the chorus to certain programs, the EK44 produces a warmth and movement which many musicians have just about decided digital synths can't do. For adding that Leslie effect to organ sounds, there's nothing better. Once you've set up a program that's to your liking, you can use the Level parameter to match levels between different programs. This is useful, because although there are 'live' sliders controlling the volume of each sound when you're in Split or Double mode (so you can make adjustments on stage if necessary), you can use this programmable level to 'preset' balances in these modes, making concert life that little bit more problem-free. Level is the last of the 27 Edit parameters - those which are stored as part of a sound program. But there are another 23 Function parameters which govern the setup of the EK44 in general. The first of these covers the range and amount of pitch-bend, modulation (vibrato) and portamento. Next come the controls for the DCGs (Digital Control Generators - Elka's jargon for the EK44's voicing). These cover specifying Detune amounts between the two sound programs in Dual mode, and assigning the pitch range over which the voices sound in Split. The first of these allows further fattening up of the sound (especially if you use the same program on each DCG), while the second allows you to establish zones (overlapping if required) where the different programs will sound on the keyboard. As well as fairly standard facilities in the Transposition section (Semitone and Fine Tuning), there's an unusual third option called Arabian Scale. Now, either this is an immensely subtle effect (involving microtones of detuning) or else it just wasn't implemented on the prototype EK44 I had for review: I certainly couldn't hear any difference. Parameters 10,11 and 12 are utility functions: Edit Recall allows you to compare edited versions with original presets, while Voice Initialisation allows you to start programming from scratch. Program Sequence Recorder allows you to string an order of programs together, which can then be advanced through using a footswitch. Now we come to my favourite section of the EK44: Split and MIDI Edit. This is where the instrument excels by taking a leaf out of the multi-sampling book, a la Sequential and Akai. Using the Multi Split mode I mentioned at the start, you can designate eight separate split points across the keyboard, and better still, assign a different MIDI channel for each, which allows for complete external multi-timbral control of the machine from a sequencer via MIDI Mode 4 - still with full dynamic allocation of polyphony. What this piece of jargonese means is that you can play, say, five notes in one zone (or on one MIDI channel) and five in (or on) another, and the next second, you can be playing in different areas (or receiving notes on different MIDI channels), without needing any pause for the synth to reset itself. You can also specify modulation, portamento and pedal controls separately for each zone or channel. As far as the transmission and reception of MIDI data goes, Modulation data (pitch-bend, mod amount, portamento and the rest), program changes and System Exclusive info can be enabled or disabled at will. But on the prototype I reviewed, the Second Touch (otherwise known as aftertouch or pressure-sensitivity) data couldn't be disabled as it could on the EK22. One of the biggest problems using the DX7 with a MIDI sequencer is that MIDI aftertouch data (which can't be disabled even if it's not routed anywhere on the machine) uses up loads of memory and drastically reduces the number of notes you can record. Nowadays, many dedicated and computer-based sequencers have a MIDI data filter which can be used to remove such memory-wasting data, but I hope the EK44 will soon emulate its analogue brother in this respect. But enough of these parameter discussions. How does the thing sound. Things begin well with what is perhaps the best synthesised acoustic piano sound I have yet heard, coupled with excellent touch response. This is followed by a splendidly distorted Hammond sound, complete with key-click and Leslie. For me, nothing will replace the speed and flexibility of an analogue filter. But I have to admit that the EK44 is a damn good machine which not only performs beautifully in the creation of digital sounds, but performs impressive imitations of analogue timbres as well. If you're looking for the best of both worlds, this could well be the solution to your dilemma. In much the same way as the EK44 invites comparison with the Yamaha DX range, so the EK22 will inevitably be compared with the original Synthex by anyone who has used it. Obviously, some compromises have had to be made to achieve the reduction in price (less than a third of the Synthex's original asking price). A prime example is the substitution of digital parameter access (which, sadly, people almost accept without complaint nowadays) for old-fashioned switches and sliders. But on the whole, the EK22 upholds the tradition well. Both the EK22 and its expander version (the EM22) use digital control techniques to recreate conventional analogue methods of synthesis. Thus the EK22 has much in common with the Synthex, and because it is velocity- and pressure-sensitive, it actually goes well beyond the scope of its predecessor as far as expression is concerned. The factory programs give a good range of the sort of standard sounds people seem to want - the ol' piano, strings and brass - but also feature more interesting and creative sounds like Sync Lead and Filt Wave. Each of the two oscillators (DCOs) can play a mix of Wave A (a pulse with width variable from 50 - a square wave - to 95) and Wave B (a triangular waveform variable in eight stages between a straight sawtooth and a pulse triangle). So, Wave B can produce waveforms not previously available on any synth, while Wave A covers the full range of pulse waveforms. In addition, the pulse width of Wave A can be continuously modulated by the LFO. This produces PWM (Pulse Width Modulation), the process responsible for some of the fattest sounds available from any type of synthesis. My only regret here is that Elka haven't included the cross-PWM between oscillators which was so successful on the Synthex. This time, though, Elka are offering another innovation in the DCO section: Cutoff Cross Modulation. This modulates the filter cutoff frequency using the oscillators, so that if you set the filter to oscillate (by turning the resonance up to full), you can create FM-type sounds, like the electric piano and bell programs resident in the factory collection. Another feature of the Synthex carried over to the EK22 is the ability to Sync the frequency of DCO2 to that of DCO1. This, coupled with the fact that you can independently shift the pitch of either oscillator, produces a whole range of 'sync-sweeps', as favoured by the Jan Hammers of this world. The EK22's envelopes are actually more flexible than those of the EK44. In addition to the standard Attack, Sustain and Release parameters, there are two decay rates available, with a breakpoint to specify at what level the envelope moves from the first rate to the second. This is useful - in conjunction with a zero sustain level - for creating percussive envelopes like those of pianos or guitars, which never sustain at a constant level, but decay continuously at a changing rate. The action of each envelope over the keyboard range can be varied using the Key Follow parameter, and this can be used to do standard things like filter tracking, or for more unlikely effects like changing pitch-bend as you go up and down the keyboard. The two envelopes are not simply hardwired to the VCA and VCF. Keyboard velocity can be assigned to the attack of either envelope, the level of the VCA or the filter cutoff. Second Touch can also be used to shift the cutoff, or to introduce vibrato from the LFO. Alternatively, vibrato can be introduced automatically by the LFO delay time. As I've said, no synth is too good to benefit from a chorus unit, especially if the setting is stored as part of each relevant program. On the EK22, the strings and organ sounds benefit enormously from this. Finally, when you have set up your program, you can preset the volume to match levels against the other sounds you'll be calling up, just as you can with the EK44. Similarly, you can set up 16 Performance Registrations, each of them needing only a single button to select it. Each of these will remember not only two program numbers (if you're using the keyboard split) but also the split point, and which of the sounds you're using monophonically. Other performance parameters include transpositions and tuning (again the Arabian Scale setting crops up), wheel amounts and MIDI parameters. The EK22's MIDI implementation allows for separate channels when the keyboard is split, and data for program changes, System Exclusive codes, aftertouch, wheels and pedals to be enabled or disabled. The EK22 also shares the Program Sequence Recorder of its digital counterpart, so you can use a footswitch to step through a predefined series of sounds. Footswitches can also be used to switch sustain or portamento on and off, and volume can be controlled via a pedal. Now we come to a bone of contention. Both the new Elka keyboards use the Roland-style 'bender' system for their performance controllers, forcing you to control pitch-bend with left-to-right movement, and modulation by pushing forward. Personally, I find the former action unnatural (somehow I always want to move something up and down to control pitch, even though we play across the keyboard to do a similar job), while the latter allows no subtlety in performance the way a continuous wheel does. MIDI implementation on the EK22 isn't quite as flexible as on its digital counterpart (multi-timbral operation is a lot more costly to implement on analogue machines because each voice channel needs separate hardware), but in Split mode, each side of the keyboard can operate on a separate MIDI channel. What's more, there is the real bonus of being able to disable the transmission of aftertouch information (as well as modulation, program-change, pedal and System Exclusive data) to save clogging up sequencer memory with unwanted data. All in all, the EK22 strikes me as being a more than competent analogue synth with a good range of editing facilities and, crucially, the ability to make noises you would normally associate with FM or PD synthesis. This confirms the suspicion I gained using the EK44: namely that these two Elka synths allow you to choose the programming structure and terminology (analogue or digital) you feel more at home with, rather than forcing you to select between two radically different families of sounds. Now, throughout this review, I've said very little about the modular versions of the analogue and digital synths. This is because, internally, they are identical to their keyboard counterparts. But because of their diminished size, the modules don't have space for parameter and preset lists or explanatory configuration diagrams on their front panels; you might find that, in use, you have to keep referring to the manual. But unlike some keyboardless synths (most notably the Yamaha TX range), the new Elkas do at least allow you to do all your programming on the modules themselves - you don't need to buy an EK44 to make new sounds on an EM44. And the modular versions accept the same cartridges as the keyboards. Still, some musicians will inevitably prefer the compactness of the modules, especially if they already have MIDI controllers that have keyboards and performance controls they feel more comfortable with. Please enable Javascript for full functionality. That may well be about to change with the release of their impressive 9-voice, multi-timbral, DX7-soundalike, the EK44, and the 6-voice analogue EK22. Or is it? Mark Jenkins offers his views. Mark Jenkins investigates the new generation of Elka synthesizers from Italy. The Italians have had mixed success in the keyboard field over the years. Many Elka organs have seen heavy stage and studio use, while organs and budget synths from SIEL (a company created by disaffected Elka employees) have had a certain amount of success too. However, SIEL's need for complete re-styling to suit the American market (Sequential turned two of their polyphonic keyboards into the snazzy Prelude and Fugue models) was just one indication of a certain lack of enthusiasm about Italian design work. The Synthex, for instance, was beautifully made but bulky and expensive, and it has taken several years for Elka to come up with its successors. The EK22 and EK44 are quite different from the Synthex, but look superficially similar to each other. This impression doesn't really last, since one is an analogue synth with a pretty familiar design, and one is a digital synth which owes a lot to the Yamaha DX7. Exactly how much we'll see shortly. EK44 Let's deal with the digital EK44 polysynth first - it's the more expensive of the two at ?1299.95 and by far the more interesting. Sounds powerful? But there's more to come. The EK44 has a single data entry slider in place of separate controls, so all the parameters available are listed on the left of the top panel. Each sound uses two Digital Control Generators (DCGs) numbered 1 and 2, and these allow you to create two elements of a sound at once, which can be mixed using two sliders on the right of the panel. The synth operates in a similar manner to the Yamaha DX7, except that the central LCD display is a little more informative, although some information (the equivalent of the DX7's algorithm charts) is hidden from the user so you don't have to worry about it. Does that make you feel more or less confident. Well, hands up those who have carefully created a sound on the DX7 and then blindly whacked the algorithm selector about anyway, just to hear what happens. So, when we go through the basic parameters, keep in mind that most of them are represented in the LCD display (which isn't lit but is still pretty visible from all directions) by an eight-section bar chart. Whether we're talking about oscillator volumes, frequencies, envelope levels or whatever, eight little columns in the display give you a good visual indication of the current state of affairs, while the first eight of the sixteen Performance Registration buttons directly beneath the display allow you to choose which of the available levels you're editing. PARAMETERS Let's start at the start with Relative Frequency which, as on the DX7, allows you to whack each oscillator from almost subsonic to almost hypersonic frequencies in one continuous sweep. Detune allows you to offset these pitches slightly to fatten the basic sound, while Envelope Attack is the first of several parameters which create movement in a sound - we'll come to the way in which the oscillators are actually interacting with each other shortly. The EK44's Envelope is a five-stage job with Attack, Decay, Sustain Level, Sustain Rate, Release Rate and Scaling, and there's a similar Pitch Envelope further down. Whether the Level envelope applied to an oscillator makes much difference to a sound depends on the oscillator's position in relation to the other oscillators (is it audible, or just a modulation source?), so you may find the envelope settings, say for Oscillator 4, are entirely critical, or almost irrelevant, or totally irrelevant (if it's been switched off). The Envelope Scaling function is explained by a diagram on the front panel which shows the various scaling options from flat to steeply curved; there's a similar diagram marked in dB for the Level Scaling function which allows you to sustain lower notes longer than higher ones. Level Scaling can be positive or negative and, again, can be applied individually to each oscillator, as can Key Velocity sensitivity. Velocity and After-Touch Sensitivity on a synth is not so uncommon now that the internal electronics are becoming cheaper to manufacture using large-scale integration methods - but it's good to see such a flexible implementation as on Elka's EK44. Adding velocity or after-touch effects to your own programs takes a little effort since you have to find out by trial and error where they have the most effect. Again, this is because the nature of the Oscillator Combination parameter is hidden from the user. It's difficult to imagine how this could differ from Yamaha's FM synthesis algorithms, but presumably there is some difference, otherwise we might be in for a heavy court case brought by the main licensees of John Chowning's FM design. That brings us to the end of the Oscillator Controls (remember everything can be applied to each of the eight oscillators), and so we move on to the Sound Controls, most of which are self-explanatory. The method of calling up sounds is a little odd - as on the SIEL synths, you have to punch up two numbers and then Enter, which can be a little slow, but at least means you can hold a sound ready to change and then call it up with a single stroke. MODES The EK44's keyboard modes are many and varied. You can play DCG1 or DCG2 sounds in Normal mode, mixing them separately, or hit both buttons for Dual mode playing which layers the two together. Hit Split and you'll get nine note polyphony on either side of the split, and make the two sounds emerge from the left and right audio outputs as appropriate. Hit all three buttons (DCG1, 2 and Split) and you'll enter Multi-Split mode, which uses seven split points for a total of eight different sounds which can operate on different MIDI channels. Polyphonic allocation is completely dynamic, so you can play eight notes in one 'zone' at one moment, and in another zone the next. Obviously this is a fantastically powerful option both for live performance and for composition using a MIDI sequencer - an octave of bass, one of strings, some brass, a lead sound and a couple of effects would be a good combination. Moving over to the right of the synth and the utility Function options, you'll find Vibrato, Level and Pitch-Bend settings for the single performance control - a Roland-style left to right bender which pushes forward to bring in modulation. This type of control may not satisfy all tastes, but since we are talking about a two-handed polyphonic keyboard, it's likely that you'll be using the touch-sensitivity options much of the time anyway. In fact, this performance control is quite versatile - you can programme it 'upside down' so that a push forward gives an upwards pitch shift, and bending to left or right brings in modulation. Could be useful. Portamento is available, with even the shortest rate being set much too long on the review instrument. Presumably this will be tweaked upon production versions. Edit Recall allows you to compare changes you've made with the original sound, Initialise resets a sound to its basic sine wave components for 'start from scratch' editing, and Program Sequence allows you to store a series of patches and call them up with a footswitch in live performance. In many cases I found the bar chart working in the opposite way from what you'd expect - surely a tall bar should mean long decay, not short. SOUNDS LIKE But what does it sound like. Hearing the brass patch from outside the demo room, I could have sworn there was a DX7 in there somewhere, and in fact many of the EK44's sounds (and their names) are conspicuously DX-like - Koto, Evolution, Marimba, Glockenspiel and many others. But the versatility of the EK44 is well demonstrated by, for instance, the first two string patches, of which one is as smooth and swirly as the old Solina string synth, and the other as precise and cold as a DX7.